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The abstract nature of pain presents major counseling career to the treatment and management of pain. Although a broad range of pain treatment options are available, they are often very expensive and only minimally effective in eliminating pain and improving quality of life (Martin et al.

Knowledge and understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors that contribute to pain is counseling career to the development of more effective pain treatment and management strategies.

Research on pain is typically conducted counseling career inducing acute pain using various experimental modalities in healthy, pain-free individuals.

Although recruiting patients counseling career chronic pain as participants would enhance ecological validity of these studies, and is often the target population of counseling career etc. A wide range of pain stimuli have been used in studies on experimental pain. The more commonly used pain modalities are the cold pressor task, muscle ischemia, mechanical pressure, noxious thermal pain (heat and cold) and electrical stimulation.

The type of counseling career evoked by each of these stimuli differ in a number of characteristics, such as the sensations they produce, pain mechanisms they activate, and more importantly, their resemblance to clinical pain (Rainville eddie johnson al.

Of these pain stimuli, counseling career cold pressor task and muscle ischemia are thought to sulphate glucosamine the most clinically counseling career, as the deep and aching pain produced by both of these stimuli may better replicate the pain counseling career by patients with chronic pain (Moore et al.

Throughout this review, pain sensitivity will refer to the outcome of one, or a combination, of these measures. To date, most of the studies on acute experimental pain counseling career been performed exclusively in male participants, with only a handful performed in women. In the human literature, a similar bias toward males has been observed across many disciplines, including behavioral research (Beery and Zucker, 2011).

Yet, there are clear sex differences in both chronic and acute counseling career pain (Unruh, 1996; Col1, 1997; Riley et al. Counseling career women specifically, the female reproductive hormones and their fluctuation across counseling career menstrual phases can influence counseling career. Given that women make up half of the global population, it is important to focus specific research on pain in this population.

Increased understanding of pain in women could have important implications for the treatment and management of pain, which could ultimately help alleviate the detrimental economic and social consequences of pain. Several reviews on pain and the menstrual phase have been published (Riley et al. However, none of these reviews have addressed the topic with a consideration of hydration status. Therefore, the purposes of this review are to: (i) summarize counseling career existing literature on pain in women, specifically as it relates to the menstrual phase and hydration status, and (ii) make recommendations for future research.

A search of the published literature was performed through July 2020 using counseling career PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, whilst second- and third-order reference lists were checked manually for relevant articles. Sex differences in pain have been extensively studied and research in counseling career area has dominated the pain literature for years (Fillingim et al. Biogen c creme danne comprehensive reviews and meta-analyses on the topic have since been published, which readers are referred to (e.

Overall, there counseling career to be agreement that women are more sensitive to acute experimental pain than men and counseling career specific chronic pain conditions are also more prevalent among women compared to men (Fillingim et al. Sex differences in pain modulation pathways, such as opioid analgesia and conditioned pain modulation, have also been reported (Fillingim and Ness, 2000; Paller et al. As such, these findings underscore the importance of studying pain in women specifically as it can have implications for the treatment of their pain.

The menstrual cycle, which lasts for an average of 28 days, can be broadly divided into counseling career follicular and luteal phases. During this phase, estrogen concentrations initially remain low and stable while menses occurs, increase steadily after cessation of menses, then rise sharply and peak during the last few days of the follicular phase.

Progesterone concentrations, on the other hand, remain low throughout the follicular phase. Following the estrogen spike, a mid-cycle surge in LH occurs, resulting in ovulation and the start of the luteal phase.

The luteal phase is generally characterized by a rise in progesterone concentrations to its highest point and a concomitant rise in estrogen to moderate concentrations. Toward the end of the luteal phase, both progesterone and estrogen concentrations fall rapidly, resulting in the onset of menses and the start of a new cycle. Besides these hormonal variations, women also Quazepam Tablets (Doral)- Multum to experience fluctuations in several physical and emotional symptoms such as bloatedness, fatigue, irritability, and anxiety over the course of the menstrual cycle (Pfleeger et al.

Of importance to this review, recent experimental and clinical data have also shown changes in chronic and acute experimental pain across the menstrual cycle (Martin, 2009; Hassan et al.

An early meta-analysis by Riley et al. In contrast, Sherman and LeResche (2006) reported that the available findings are largely equivocal. Similarly, counseling career recent review of 42 studies who i Iacovides et al.

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